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 Earthquakes and their causes and scale of the harm done to

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PostSubject: Earthquakes and their causes and scale of the harm done to   Wed Jan 18, 2012 3:16 pm

Earthquake is a natural phenomenon is a fast ground vibration due to the broken rocks and shifted due to the accumulation of internal stresses as a result of geological effects caused by the movement of plate. May arise as a result of earthquake or volcanic activities as a result of the presence of landslides in the layers of the earth.



Cause earthquakes to rupture of the land and depletion of the springs or the appearance of springs of new or waves that high if they get below the surface of the sea (the tsunami) as well as their subversion of the buildings, transportation, facilities, and often result in movements of convection in Almtkor Moorish (Asthenosphere) that drive continental plates, causing a earthquakes are earthquakes. The earthquakes may occur havoc Kberao determine the degree of earthquake index, and they measure from 1 to 10: 1 to 4 earthquakes may not occur any damage which may sense only, from 4 to 6 moderate earthquakes damage may cause damage to homes and stays, while the maximum score any of the 7 to 10 Visttia earthquake destroyed the city completely and dug under the ground to disappear with the damage to the nearby towns



How do earthquakes consist



During the process of vibration affecting the earth's crust generated six types of waves of shocks, of which two relate to the body of the earth where the affect on the inner part of the land, while the four waves of the other are surface waves, and can distinguish between these waves also through the kinds of movements that affect the particles rocks, where to send the initial waves or pressure waves, particles oscillate back and forth in the same direction as the course of these waves, while the movement of the secondary waves or transverse vibrations perpendicular to the direction of travel.

Usually the initial waves propagate faster than secondary waves, and then, when an earthquake occurs, the first waves of up and recorded in geophysical research stations all over the world, Petra is the primary waves.



Theories of the emergence of earthquakes



Since its inception, the earth was a hot body like the other planets, and when the cold fact that the hydrosphere and the atmosphere has attracted the antenna, with the increasing cold .. Formed solid layer of Foreign Affairs, known as the cortex, but the ground under a hot date, and contains Magma Metals Limoges phenomenon known currents pregnancy Interior, which operates in conjunction with the heat very high on the erosion of hard rock in the crust of solid and downloaded or shipped Bajhadat and great potential for highly increased over time, and the crust itself is composed of a set of sheetrock giant too, each carrying a plate of a continent or more, and spoke the download process or shipping primarily in the areas of convergence of these plates with each other, the so-called scientists faults or faults that define the ends and beginnings plates bearing continents, and when more than shipping or pressure on the ability of these rocks on the probability not be able to only release of this energy is suddenly in the form of waves, a strong movement spread in all directions, and penetrate rocks the earth's crust, and makes them vibrate and tremble, as is known, in this light. . Originated on Earth a group of vulnerable areas in the earth's crust are centers of seismic activity, or exits breathing through the land of what is going on inside of the energy concerned need to be a starting point, and so-called "belts earthquakes": the belt of the Pacific extending from South-East Asia shoe Pacific north. The belt of western North America, which stretches along the Pacific Ocean. And a belt west of the Americas, including Venezuela, Chile and Argentina, and a belt central Atlantic Ocean, including western Morocco, and extends as far north as Spain, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece and northern Turkey, and meet this fault when extending to the south-east with the "Zagros" between Iraq and Iran, a region near the "Himalayan belt." The belt of the Alps, including the Alps in the south of Europe. The belt of northern China, which extends north China introduced from east to west, and meet with a crack of the Caucasus, and to the west rift with the Pacific Ocean. There is another belt of the weakest earthquake belts, and extends from the southern Anatolian fault along the Dead Sea as far south as the Gulf of Suez, South Sinai, Red Sea and the center of the great African Valvalq, and affects the areas of Yemen and Ethiopia and the Great Rift Valley. The earth is a single unit, but it is established that the volcanoes of the earth's crust, and pressures in different regions of which lead to seismic activity can not link between him and the seismic activity occurs in another area, and in that light .. Acquired all the seismic nature of the private is different in nature Alaradih (geological) and structures under the surface, and that it could be said: The seismic activity is special to this region, does not mean convergence time of the seismic activity on the belts earthquakes different that there was at the time of occurrence with each other, but due to many factors within the ground is still under study rights. The earth is a single unit, but it is established that the volcanoes of the earth's crust, and pressures in different regions of which lead to seismic activity can not link between him and the seismic activity occurs in another area, and in that light .. Acquired all the seismic nature distinct from the others in terms of the nature of the geological and structures under the surface, and that it could be said: The seismic activity is special to this region, does not mean convergence time of the seismic activity on the belts earthquakes different that there was at the time of occurrence with each other , but due to many factors within the ground is still under study rights. Based on the theories of the emergence of earthquakes .. The prediction is on 3 levels; the first part, Where is the earthquake, and through the above explanation can be seen that greatly facilitate the identification of large areas of the world are classified as possible venues for the occurrence of earthquakes, which are located within the belt of earthquakes, and the second level: the potential power of earthquakes that will occur in these areas, building on the above, also .. Can say that this level is more difficult than the first level, there is no one able to estimate the size of the potential energy in the earth, which begins with the earthquake, and all placed predictions in this regard merely rough estimates on the average of earthquakes each region, based on previous recordings, and the level The third is to predict when earthquakes occur, and this is impossible, and there is no way you can do so. Most of the damage caused to humans resulting from earthquakes near the surface of the earth; because it is considered one of the most earthquakes over again, and the earthquakes that occur between these two Alamqan (600 km and 60 km) are considered moderate earthquakes in terms of frequency and depth and the resulting damage, called the point at which the starting point into the center of the earthquake or the earthquake, located above the point just above the surface of the earth surface is called the center of the earthquake. The transmitted energy emitted from the earthquake focus to all directions in the form of seismic waves (seismic). And move some of the waves below the ground, and moves some of the other above ground, and surface waves propagate faster than the waves of the Interior. Waves can be recorded and issued by a major earthquake on the monitors earthquakes in the region corresponding to the earthquake of the world, and these waves reach the earth's surface within 21 minutes.



Measuring the intensity of earthquakes and predictable



Measuring the intensity of earthquakes

Measured earthquakes usually Bmkiesin important; first is the "quake" Intensity, and know the severity of the earthquake as a measure descriptive of what caused the earthquake effect on the rights and property, and what was the standard measure of descriptive differs from the human being for another in describing the impact of the quake according to different patterns of life in the countries of the world, the human factor and the interference of the intent or exaggeration there have been many pictures of this measure, the most important measure of "average Mercalli," This measure includes 12 degrees, for example .. Earthquake with intensity "12", it does not keep a devastating and Weather, and cause the outbreak of the volcanoes, and fiery lava out of the ground, and shaking the earth as a whole has the center of the solar system. The second measure is a measure of "quake" Magnitude, has been developed by the German "Richter" and knew his name, and depends mainly on the amount of energy stress causes an earthquake, and this measure of scientific calculated value of the seismic waves recorded by stations earthquakes of different, and it .. There is little difference between the strength of an earthquake is calculated by Helwan Observatory in Egypt or observatory "Uppsala" Sweden

Predict earthquakes

There is a big difference between the forecast and predicted the earthquake, Predicting is to determine the place and time of the earthquake accurately, and be within several hours, and this is not available at the global level. The prediction is a guess based on historical studies of the continuous seismic and Aradia (geology). The earthquake did not know it happen, one so far, although there is one incident was predicted by the place and date of the earthquake, and was in China in the sixties, was the displacement of the population of the region, and has already been rescued, and there was a devastating earthquake which collected many of the statements of the evidence that occurs before the earthquake, such as the snakes out of their nests, and the migration of birds, and alarming to some animals such as dogs and horses, and the escalation of radon gas, were collected historical seismic data for the region, although their application of this theory in a large number of other earthquakes .. But it did not work even once after that, and this is further confirmation of the failure of the prediction of earthquakes, although the scientists they could determine the belts of earthquakes in the world and active regions, and conducting several studies to try to predict some earthquakes, particularly in the presence of advanced technology.



History of earthquakes

Gujarat earthquake in western India, January 26, 2001.
Earthquake in Bam, Iran, killing around 40 thousand people in it.
Indian Ocean Earthquake December 26, 2004, which followed months a tsunami which hit the coasts of many countries including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, India, Somalia and other terms and described the quake as one of the worst natural disasters that hit the ground at all which killed nearly 250,000.
2006 Kashmir earthquake that killed about 79 thousand people.
Earthquake in Algeria (Boumerdes)
Earthquake in Algeria, Oran 6/6/2008 5.5
Earthquake in Algeria, state Chlef formerly called the idols destroyed 10/10/1980 the entire province.
China's quake was the strongest earthquake destroyed the entire city hailed 03.05.2008.
December 1999: in the last days of the twentieth century, an earthquake measuring five degrees and eight tenths of a degree hit areas in western Algeria, killing twenty-eight people and wounding one hundred and seventy-five others
November 1999: With the demise of the century also subjected Turkey again a violent earthquake measuring more than seven degrees and taking the lives of more than four hundred and fifty people
September 1999: Taiwan's deadliest quake measuring seven degrees and six tenths of a degree on the Richter scale, leads to the death of a thousand and five hundred people and wounded and displaced thousands of others
September 1999: A strong earthquake is located in Greece and an intensity of five degrees and nine-tenths of a degree on the Richter scale, based near Athens. Earthquake led to the deaths of forty-nine people
August 1999: a terrible earthquake magnitude ranging between six and eight degrees and seven tenths of a degree on the Richter scale shakes the northern western Turkey, causing tens of thousands of dead and wounded
March 1999 earthquakes rocked Uttar Pradesh in northern India and led to the deaths of more than a hundred people
January 1999: Earthquake in the Colombian city of Armenia killed about a thousand people
July 1998: the killing of more than a thousand people in the north-west coast of Papua New Guinea by the waves caused by an earthquake under the sea
June 1998: an earthquake shook the area of ​​Adana in southeastern Turkey, killing one hundred and forty-four people. After a week of that region has seen tremors caused Artdadetyn injured more than a thousand people
May 1998: Earthquake in Afghanistan kills four thousand people
February 1997: An earthquake measuring five degrees and a half degree on the Richter scale shakes the rural areas of north-western Iran, killing a thousand people. After three months, is a violent shocks lead to the death of a thousand and five hundred and sixty people in eastern Iran
May 1995: An earthquake measuring seven degrees and a half class hits the remote Russian island of Sakhalin, killing thousand and nine hundred and eighty-nine people
November 1995: An earthquake hits the Middle East centered in the Gulf of Aqaba coast and includes the areas of tourism in Egypt in addition to Jordan, Israel and Saudi Arabia, and felt by the population of Lebanon, Syria, Cyprus
January 1995: An earthquake shakes the Japanese city of Kobe and lead to the deaths of six thousand, four hundred and thirty people
June 1994: A person killed in the earthquake and landslides in Colombia
September 1993: An earthquake leads to the deaths of nearly twenty-two thousand villagers in the southern and western India
October 1992: An earthquake measuring five degrees and eight tenths of a degree hit Egypt and lead to the deaths of nearly three hundred and seventy and wounding more than three thousand people. The epicenter was southwest of Cairo, near the Fayoum and Giza struck violently
In 1990: the deaths of more than forty thousand people in the north of Iran Gillan
October 1989: The Loma Prieta earthquake hits California and cause death of sixty-eight people and caused damage worth seven million dollars
December 1988: An earthquake measuring six degrees and nine tenths of a degree on the Richter scale destroyed the north-west Armenia, killing twenty-five thousand people
September 1985: an earthquake shakes the Mexican capital destroys buildings and kills ten thousand people
October 1980: the first two consecutive earthquakes Nivan strongly seven degrees and three tenths of a degree and the second power of six degrees and three tenths of a degree depending on the Richter scale, hitting the city of idols (Chlef now) in western Algeria and lead to the deaths of nearly three thousand people and destroying most of the parts of the city
In 1980: the killing of hundreds of earthquakes in southern Italy
In 1976: the city of Tangshan, the Chinese turned to rubble by the earthquake destroyed the lives of five hundred thousand people
In 1960: the most powerful earthquake on record worldwide in Chile, with a magnitude of 9.5 on the Richter scale, has removed all
Face of the earth entire villages and killed thousands of people
In 1954: An earthquake hit the city of idols (Chlef) Algerian whose name was then Aorlaanzfel and killed thousand and six hundred and fifty-seven people
In 1950: an earthquake hit the state of Assam, northeast India. Shocks led to record levels of different intensity, but it was officially registered nine on the Richter scale degree
In 1948: Fukui earthquake in East China Sea, destroyed parts of western Japan and killed three thousand seven hundred and seventy people
In 1931: An earthquake measuring five degrees and a half degree on the Richter scale centered in the North Sea coast of Britain. Was little loss of life
In 1923: Kanto earthquake and the epicenter outside the Japanese capital directly, claiming the lives of one hundred and forty-two thousand people in Tokyo
In 1906: a series of violent shocks a one-minute hit San Francisco in the United States, killing about three thousand people due to the collapse of buildings due to fire or
Earthquake (Hhly, China) year (1290) 100 000 the number of dead was one of the biggest disasters Tabaah (Reference Introduction to Geology Tabaah. Tarbok ed / to Otganz
Lisbon earthquake of 1755 killed between the 60 to 100 thousand people and was one of the most destructive earthquakes in history. رد إعادة توجيه
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