Soil important natural wealth cover a lot of ground. Life on earth depends on the soil as a direct source, or indirectly for food. Plants, for example, is rooted in the soil, and get them on the nutrients (nutrients), and animals as well as get the nutrients from plants, or animals that eat plants. Cause certain microbes in the soil decay of dead organisms which helps restore nutrients to the soil. In addition, many of the animals find protection in the soil.
Soil minerals and organic plant material and animal as well as the other containing air and water. And change the contents of the soil regularly. There are many soil types, each with distinct characteristics, including color and composition. And helps the soil type in the area in determining the ability to crop out growth. The soil is formed slowly and easily destroy therefore must be protected so that it can continue to support life.
Soil scientists use the term Albolebedonat the different blocks of soil in a particular geographic area. These can be large blocks of sizes, and infinite, but each has a surface area of one square meter only, but some Albolebedonat thickness of at least 13 cm. The clip soil term used to express the soil structure.
Called metals and organic particles in the soil soil particles. Air, water and occupies the space between the particles, and the plants and animals living in the pore spaces and the roots of plants also grow through the pore spaces.
Minerals: Minerals supplying green plants with nutrients. The form known as sand and silt and mud most mineral content of the soil particles.
The sand and silt minerals quartz and feldspars particles. Clays of illite and kaolin and Almikat and Elvirmkiuliet, and other minerals consist. It adds scarce amounts of many for nutrient metals including calcium, phosphorus and potassium. Most soils called Terpa metal because more than 80% of the metal particles.
Plant and animal materials: made up of organic materials in varying stages of decomposition. Many memberships and also live in the soil. Soil organisms containing plants and microbes roots and some animals such as worms, insects and small mammals. And the disintegration of bacteria and fungi and other microbes dead plants and animals. And help many soil organisms and organic particles and minerals on the assembly (convergence) and the formation of clumps of soil. And break the roots and burrowing animals and natural weathering large soil blocks.
Launches decomposing organic material in the soil nutrients. In addition, some organic materials combine with mineral particles. The other decaying organic material called humus soil particles. Most of humus be black or a dark brown color, and carrying a large amount of water. The organic portion of the 6% to only 12% of the particle size in most mineral soils. However, this tiny amount greatly increase the ability of the soil to support plant life. In some soils, which are called organic soil organisms represent more than 20% of the soil particles.
Water: water enters the soil Iveb minerals and nutrients, and constitutes the soil solution. And seeps away a lot of the solution, but some of stay in the pore spaces. Get green plants on the water and some nutrients absorb soil solution through its roots.
Air: Air solve the water that seeps through the place of the large pore spaces. And soil organisms live better in the soil, which always contains almost equal amounts of water and air.
How soil consists
Soil begins to emerge when breaking rain and snow and other environmental factors, rocks and similar materials. Breaks up the resulting article, called the parent material to the metal particles.
Named ranges classes. Containing upper class or range or organic materials and become more deep enough to support plant seeds. The lower layer or band c Vchbh parent material.
Advanced soil can strengthen a healthy cover of vegetation. It may also contain a middle layer called the band b. This range contains the minerals washed with water drainage from the soil surface.
Soil begins to take shape when the decomposition of rocks environmental forces, and similar materials which are located on the surface of the ground or close to it. The so-called soil materials from the parent material scientists. With the evolution of soil over the centuries accumulate organic material, and the similarity of the soil becomes the mother of article less and less. And possibly displace glaciers, rivers and other environmental forces of the parent material and soil from one area to another.
Soil exposed to the formation and destruction constantly. And perhaps destroy the erosion processes caused by wind and water soil composition which quickly took thousands of years.
Soil formation varies depending on the effect of various environmental factors. These factors include:
1 - types of parent material.
2 - climate.
3 - Earth's surface features.
4 - plants and animals.
5 - time.
1 - Types of parent material: material helps the mother to identify the type of metal particles in the soil. And break a process called weathering Mother materials to metal particles. There are two types of weathering:
A - fragmentation of natural
B - chemical fragmentation.
A natural fragmentation: caused by the snow and rain, and other powers. These processes fragmentation rock to her small particles same installation parent material, and produces sand and silt from the natural fragmentation.
B - turned Chemical: mainly affects the easy rock weathering. In this type of weathering breaks chemical structure of the rock, when water dissolves certain minerals in the rock.
Produces chemical decomposition elements differ in chemical composition from the parent material. And melt some of this material in the soil solution, and they are ready in the form of nutrients to the plant. And other materials decompose and be clay particles or new metals.
Mineral content affects the parent material also on the plants that grow in the soil of some kind. For example, grow plants, including desert and Wadia, better in acidic soils that contain a large amount of iron.
2 - Climate: The climate affects the biochemical activity in the soil, including the types and rates of weathering. She turned the natural, for example, is the dominant mode of weathering the cold, dry climate. Encourage high temperatures and humidity on the chemical decomposition and fragmentation. In addition, most of the other activities that require the soil is warm and moist conditions. And subside these activities or even stop in the cold weather. Therefore, the soil in dry climates tend to be shallower and less sophisticated than those found in warm and humid regions.
3 - Earth's surface parameters: those parameters also control the amount of soil formed in a region. For example, the definition of running water on the soil and ground displays new rocks to weathering. We note that the soil erosion slopes become faster than those on the flat areas and that her chances of formation a few. Therefore, they are not sophisticated like soil located on flat land.
4 - plants and animals: help memberships soil and organic matter to the soil development and also protect it from erosion. It also adds the death and decomposition of plant and animal organic material to the soil. This soil organic matter and help to support new memberships. Nor eroded soil with vegetation, which contain a large amount of organic material easily.
5 - Time: be exposed to soil processes soil density and for a long, deep and well developed, while rapid soil erosion or be deprived of such operations for a long period of time less sophisticated.