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 Astronomy and the beginning of lunar months

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PostSubject: Astronomy and the beginning of lunar months   Fri Oct 07, 2011 12:27 am

The problem of the appointment of beginnings and ends of the lunar months began after the independence of Muslim countries, after these countries have become centers of Fatwa, each country has become a center for Issuing Fatwas, there was no central state to solve the succession problem. Some scientists are fighting astrology, we are also fighting the occult, the problem is that there is confusion between the profession of an astronomer and the profession of mine. Mine is not a world in astronomy, astronomer, and therefore is not mine. Held several seminars at the universities of Western and took this (charge) and a weak point of this confusion among the Muslims, we in the twentieth century and the early third millennium, Muslims are still confuse astronomy and astrology. In one seminar a halt, astronomers adults and asked the audience: how many of you mine? No one answered him, then asked a second of your astrology? Everyone raised his hands. Was asked: Why this question? He replied: Because I read that the Muslim establishment in Lebanon is still labeled astronomers Mounbn. There is a big difference between astronomers and astrologers and astrology and astronomy. Valmndjem or (Nagam) is the one who claims to know the people and their future fortunes and the fate of their lives according to the positions of the stars when she was born, who look to the stars and calculate sunrise and sunset times and conduct, which Viohm conditions of people and the world. The process, known as astrology (Ostrologi) is the process of linking the positions of the stars and the movements and conduct of business and human destiny. It is believed the mine and declare that the stars affect the life and death of people, standing men of science including astronomers with the refusal of scholars in astrology and the views of astrologers. Did not know that the astronomical world, and allegedly agreed to mine. If we consider astrology a profession, the mine does not need more than a few months to master his profession in all its details and rules. The astronomer, who we call (Ostronomi) is the one who carries out monitoring and survey and study the laws of celestial movements and orbits of celestial bodies from the satellites and accessories: planets, asteroids, stars and galaxies and the shocked and black holes. . . Etc. and is also working on measurements and tests, and accounts related to them. And spend astronomical age of more than ten years in the university study and research where he teaches as well as branches of astronomy multiple and math high (accounts): integration and differentiation and measurement astronomical and mechanical cyan, astrophysics and science of the emergence of the universe, cosmology and space physics, optics, space science and the moon and the geography and natural planetary and meteorological and space communications and electronic devices of modern technology and satellites, as well as other topics such as thermodynamics and fluid mechanics and specific heat and dynamic air and space survey and statistical analysis ... Etc. After all these sciences taught by the title of mine call it .. This is an injustice!! Then graduate student of astronomy degree (Dr.), for example Fimars monitoring, measurement and development of electronic devices and designed in a astronomical observatories or participate in the work of the various astronomical missions around the globe or to assume the teaching in a university. Therefore qualified astronomers Mounbn ignorance or disregard the nature of their training and preparation, their knowledge. Has suffered for this adjective astronomers of the readers of Arab Muslims, particularly members of the International Committee for Crescent Observation. The qualified astronomers Mounbn great injustice to the Muslim astronomers in the Middle Ages, which had a significant role in the history of human civilization and who still work and achievements of scientific astronomy is an important reference for astronomers in the West. The exclamation point astronomers in the West, at Canadian universities how not protesting professors and students of astronomy at the universities of Lebanon to the adjective that does not excuse him to name the sorcery of the work and achievements of astronomers, both in medieval times the algorithm and Albzjani, Al-Razi and al-Battani and al-Biruni and al-Tusi and Ibn Yunus and Ibn al-Haytham and Abu Wafa and Batroga and Elmejrata and Zarqawi, and others. Note that in our history has emerged of hundreds of Arab Islamic astronomers were not in any other nation that has emerged this number such as featured in our Islamic nation, is no doubt that the reason for the development of astronomy among Muslims is a religious reason. Muslim wants to know the direction of Qibla and the birth of Crescent and the beginning of the month .. Islam is the main incentive to master the science of astronomy and its development. At the present time there are astronomers senior non-Muslims, such as the Hawking-Schule Neckargemuend Sanhan, and others who have a great credit to the progress of astronomy in the present era. Up to now, and still used by the laws and Alaptnana Tusi and Albzjani used by the agency, "Naza". Unfortunately, we are far away from the use of this heritage! Astronomical tables called upon Muslim scholars Name (Alozaaj) Single (Zig) is a tables had to sunrise and sunset every day and sunrise the moon and twilight daily sunrise and sunset the planets day (lunar and solar eclipses.) In medieval days there was no radiation (laser ) and infrared rays do not (X) and (gamma) and satellites, had to rely on hardware or primitive tools such as: (link is variable), and (with pocket), and (with points) and (stick-Tusi), a device used in the science of Astronomy is still found in European museums. If we deal with tables of modern supervised by astronomers today is found in a very precise so that did not happen during this century at least - at the tables available in public libraries - has not happened even once to different tables sunrise and sunset and the eclipse and the eclipse and the other planets in the solar by one part of the ten parts of a second. He who claims that when astronomers a difference in their words, where is the difference? For example, when appointed by the astronomers of the argument that the moon this year was born the day Wednesday 17 March at 6.42 pm. This number is found in the two hundred connubial (brochure / schedule) of the issuance of the University of Moscow or Beijing or Tokyo or Paris or Rome or London (or Oxford) or (Cambridge) or any university in the astronomical world is no different, even if part of the ten parts of a second. This is a global time (at the expense of Greenwich). And this state can be calculated due time commensurate with the Greenwich Mean Time. Coupling is located above a particular area, sometimes accompanied by the moon with the earth and the sun over the Pacific Ocean, and sometimes over southern Africa or India, the site differs Every month, there is no fixed astronomical base for a particular site. The moon revolves around the earth and the earth in a given curve about the same, holding the moon with it and move it around the Earth. These differences in the cycle of the moon around the earth every 24 hours and its full time around the sun every 365 days and a quarter today, a full cycle, the cycle of the moon around the same every 29 days and 12 hours and 48 minutes and two seconds on the ground. When the moon revolves around the earth always takes the same time, there is no more than a month last month, but we can not measure the days of the lunar month format days, we use the ground today. Full cycle of the earth around itself 24 hours, this day, we promise land the lunar days. The only difference in the ground that the day of appointment starts from midnight to midnight, the second, while the lunar day starts from sunset to sunset II. The only difference, but the percentage of time are the same no difference. And the moon around the earth are the same but that the scientists termed this break. The observations, astronomers about the time the moon in Almhak (when the moon between the earth and the sun) and this association will be in two forms, either be (written) that the center is the sun and the center of the moon and the Center of the Earth on one line and then get eclipse of the sun, and either fall sun and the earth in one level. In this case the moon's shadow falls outside the ground, coupling here (superficial). And when he gets the eclipse the moon has completed its Alaguetranih (the end of the month) and begins a new month. In this case the moon may be the case between the observer and the eye of the sun after two minutes (maximum 6 minutes) goes directly to the moon if the moon went evacuated and began to walk, then the sun shines again. Question here is: What is the opinion of Muslim jurists in this case. I understand that the moon passed between the theoretical and the sun began to month, if we assume that evening he came to monitor the moon has not seen it with our own eyes. Do you take this view, we say month started tomorrow, or we say this is a lie and hypocrisy. Question is addressed to scientists and scholars!! Some were saying (if you arrived astronomy to give us the facts and minutes of uncertainty we are going to take it), this phase are now even in the past. But what was happening in Beirut 35 years ago is that the astrologers a month before the month of Ramadan, put an ad in the newspaper and write down in the "astronomical because" while it is not only mine!! Today, there are scientific facts do not doubt it. The human mind does not rely on this information at random just because it is information, it is part of the physical universe created by God and make it linked to interconnected precision. Did not get in the history of the World Federation of astronomers, which comprises thousands of scientists of any disagreement about the appointment of the time of entry and exit of the moon Almhak. We hope to those who are skeptical Bersad, standards and experiences and studies astronomers documented proof to prove the existence of any difference in the tables published on this topic. I am willing to bet with anyone if there is variation of this type (table issued by the University of Toronto and another on the University of Paris, for example) and found a difference in the time set out the moon Almhak his birth, and then I say: when astronomers lies and hypocrisy. What people see before the birth of the crescent and before he left Almhak? The allegation of vision in the beginning of the month of Ramadan and Shawwal for the years 1998/1999. I remember that in the fifties and sixties we see the moon through the (telescope), while the people through her sight were not seen him, but today we marvel at how to sight the crescent with the naked eye before he was born with 4 or 5 hours. If we consider per cent of witnesses who saw the Crescent 98-99 years are truthful in their testimony did not intentionally lie question arises, what saw? To answer it, we draw attention to something which is that the climate and prospects surrounding the globe these days vary greatly from what it has been for a century and even forty years ago. It is therefore necessary to review the method of scrutiny and investigation followed in the acceptance of the certificate or rejection. Nor from a lying witness, or blame them because they saw something like a crescent in the western horizon as the illusory vision, such as those resulting from the error and suspicion of possible occurrence. Have occurred during the experiment (for diligence Scheffer) Balasthilal in the United States that has seen 15% of the crescents Almsthlain see fake and the experience was over four years. If you can see how the Crescent and are the reasons? 1 .. The prospects and the atmosphere surrounding the Earth polluted a lot of smoke, gases and clouds of smoke of different types and degrees of smoke and fog (Smoke), and the fog of high-and water vapor, and mist blur, and smudge and soot, and jets of gas is intermittent, and dust. . . Etc. the atmosphere today is full of these things, and all carry a range of gases such as water vapor, chlorine gas resulting from evaporation of sea water and oceans, and the first carbon dioxide produced by burning gasoline from the movement of vehicles and aircraft, and the second and third sulfur dioxide resulting from electric power plants and refineries oil, sulfur and hydrogen resulting from the interaction of sulfur dioxide in the space with water vapor in the ultraviolet and the first and second nitrogen oxide and fires. . . Etc. is not free now horizon or part of the atmosphere of the earth no matter how pure and net of the effects of these gases floating in the western horizon in the form of (feather) seem to eye of the beholder after sunset like a crescent, because it is because of density different from the air density and height above the horizon reflect the rays of the sun after sunset and rise of these stray fragments of the Earth's surface to the upper atmosphere in the form of (Rishi flow) due to movement of the Earth around itself from west to east. And the observer can these days be seen with the naked eye every night of the month, his family and fake if given careful consideration to after sunset in almost all countries. 2 .. In addition, each of these gases that we have mentioned that raise doubts about the vision enters another factor important is known as light pollution is light that spreads in the air above the city lighthouse incandescent light bulbs in the streets and roads and in front of houses, factories, etc. and lead to make a glow in space, which is reflected on some quills soft haze of the slave takes the form of a fine line of light like a crescent. 3 .. The presence of thousands of satellite made of metal polished and shiny and reflective to light (about 6 thousand satellite) spin continuously and rapidly mixed up sometimes to the speed of the earth's rotation around itself, and notes the beholder to the western horizon after sunset in most cases that the part facing the sun from the moon reflects the light industrial crescent moon appears to be normal. Therefore, for this thing to be the legitimate calls for the scrutiny of scientific testimony in advance of each of the certificate to see the crescent. Please note that the International Committee for Crescent Observation in North America has launched an appeal on 14 / January / 1999 by the Internet to a group of its members, reporters and those who are specialized scientific in Saudi Arabia in Mecca and Medina, Jeddah, Riyadh and Taif and Abha, in order to ushering on Sunday night and send their reports to the Committee by the Internet. Where the western horizon in the south of Saudi Arabia (Asir) and pure net over the western horizon in the east of Saudi Arabia (Al Ahsa), where the oil wells and fumes. In the affected area have seen the moon is sighted at the scene while the net in front of them, not only the sea (Red Sea) have not seen one. However, did not witness one of Almsthlain in Taif and Abha, Makkah, Medina and Jeddah vision. 4 - the impossibility of vision before the birth of Crescent said in a statement issued by the Office of the some of the scientists as saying the following: (where it is proven to us and definitively after reviewing the opinions of most of the astronomical observatories in the world, including the Observatory of Tehran, and after listening to the views of astronomers trusted impossible to sight the crescent of the country we agree with part of the night, So that with respect of all provisions issued by the others to build the balance of legitimacy adopted to have it, according to our opinion we consider that day and Monday is the last day of the holy month of Ramadan and the day on Tuesday, is the first day of Eid Al-Fitr, so the claim of vision sum of some people but it is a suspicion and wrong in our view) that the investigation of some scientists with astronomical observatories world true and correct, and that all scientific institutions astronomical confirmed the impossibility of sighting of the moon before its birth is no doubt in the incidence of error and suspicion in the certificates, which announced that the supplies for the vision to be delayed sunset the moon from the sun, do not see the moon may west by the sun or with him as the moon, then the half facing the Earth's dark Mhaka not light reflected it and the moon is not called a crescent before the appearance of an arc light in it, there is no moon but the light does not light until after the coupling and crescent before coupling, Vmenzlh pairing status prior to the start-up. And starts monitoring the new moon when the sun sets in the second night of a combination of earth and the moon and the sun, which is also called a meeting or association or contact, or the birth of the new month or new moon, therefore, does not monitor the crescent at sunset if no pairing has occurred, does not matter in the pairing that occurs after sunset to the impossibility of the existence of the moon in the western horizon. Overall, the Crescent stainless vision of the horizon of the outlook depends on several variables, including: anomaly, and rise above the western horizon, including the duration of stay after sunset and locate the moon in orbit around the Earth, and the location of Earth in its orbit around the sun, and the angle of deviation of the Arctic towards the the sun or away from it and the state of the atmosphere of serenity and purity gases or pollution, and also of the unity of vision and integrity of the eyes and experience Mounzelh and location. All of these variables and factors have a significant impact the possibility of vision. It is certain that all of these conditions and controls were not available in the new moon of Ramadan on Friday evening on 18 December 1998, nor in the crescent of Shawwal in the evening of Sunday January 17, 1999. If the Witnesses did not see the Crescent and saw the real, but it appeared to them. There is a divine claim to know the conditions of the planets and the way Jeriha and functioning. He says::, and made us night and day two verses Vmhona verse the night and made us sign the day wide open for the husband to his wife as well as from the Lord and know the number of years and the account and everything Vsalnah detailed - in Surat other:, who made the sun light and moon light and we projected homes to know the number of years and the account, creating God is only right separates the verses for a people who know - the story of a calendar or villages is noted that this important stage of human history, the peoples and nations move from century to century is full of achievements of scientific, technical, political and social changes to a century to come may happen to humanity's achievements and changes may now be beaten of the imagination. The phenomenon of extreme underdevelopment in this day and age that does not use the Islamic calendar of the world united to deal by Islamic governments are committed to using the Islamic Hijri lunar calendar, in all their transactions in the departments and official institutions. The complexity of relationships and interests and economic ties and military educational and administrative between Islamic countries and Western countries in this era has led to interest in the West and especially the United States to find a way scientific link between the lunar calendar, the Islamic and the solar calendar the Gregorian so do not get any conflict or disagreement in the dates of appointments, decrees and celebrations, visits and conferences agreed between the parties. The development of a unified Islamic lunar calendar is binding on Muslims, known by the beginning and end of the month in advance in this era has become an urgent need for Islamic countries to develop joint educational programs and to investigate the economic, social and the like. It is known that all the solar calendar used in Western countries indicate to the day when this generates a new lunar month on the meteorological and astronomical calculations in force in those countries. The collector of scientific and technical progress in the West have become to know and monitor the entry Almhak the moon in and out of the generally accepted scientific axioms. It is known that Saudi Arabia was the first country to adopt the Islamic lunar calendar for 15 years from 1990 to 2005. Launched by the name of the calendar (or villages). The calendar on this regard Almhak out the moon as the beginning of the Hijri lunar month on the basis that the next day, a moon of Almhak out at any hour of the day, according to Universal Time is the beginning of the new month. It is known that this calendar is the same as the calendar that works by the U.S. Naval Observatory. Had to be in this calendar beginnings and ends of the lunar month absolutely nothing to do with a fixed vision Alaanana Crescent. The calculation fixed mathematical relationship between the dates of the Islamic calendar, and in all relationships and transactions and levels between the countries concerned. And thus no longer see the kind for Saudi Arabia has no effect on the beginning and the end of the lunar month has led the case to a dispute lasting associations between astronomical Arab-Islamic on the one hand and the Ministry of Awqaf and the Council of Fatwa highest in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and up the dispute to the peak in the appointment of the start of Ramadan and the end and beginning of the argument in each year. Imbalance observed in Umm al-Qura calendar, weakness and imbalance in this calendar is as follows: 1 .. Calculate the start of the lunar month in Saudi Arabia on the basis of Universal Time (ie, arriving on the local time and calculate month based on Coordinated Universal Time) the difference of about 8 hours sometimes. 2 .. In many cases impossible to provide visibility of the crescent-kind, which is inconsistent with the astronomical beginning of the month scheduled Coordinated Universal Time. Despite all of this shortfall has been able to find the Saudi authorities always make a certificate of vision since 1990. Astronomical associations have protested in the Islamic countries and in North America on the method of Umm Al-Qura calendar.The face of a protest issued by the President of the Jordanian Astronomical Society Professor Haim Mamdouh Abu Zaid on 23 Ramadan in the year 1418 AH corresponding to January 21, 1992 AD to the Supreme Fatwa Council in Riyadh on the announcement of the birth of the moon of Shawwaal the day before the normal full schedule (24 hours). The officials answered a named Mohammed bin Ahamd including the following: (The appointment times beginning of the first month of the Islamic prayer times are such as the appointment and that the divine wisdom of the times this is the science not be taken as a rite devotional worship God alone and not the Times). And has not been a Council advisory Top Saudi does not just not much to the subject of vision and witnesses but said an algorithm moon in the appointment of the lunar month with the following text: ((is a calendar or villages that if the age of the moon at sunset, the amount of 12 hours and above, then the previous day is the first day of the month because today the Islamic Islamic starts at sunset)) .. We interpreted these words!!

-------------------------------------

It is obvious that with this statement in the statement of the angel to a calendar or appointment of the villages in the early months, leaving only the flow of speech and confusion in the accounts of Umm Al-Qura calendar! The experience over the past years we remember that this calendar announced with the early months of times, (which according to the fact that the Moon more than 12 hours), whereas in the same time announced the centers astronomical world (from Tokyo and Bacon and Mesku, Berlin, Paris, London, Kanada, America and Australia) that the moon not generated or not out of the Almhak yet.

With these accounts, contrary to the experience of Umm Al-Qura calendar with the world's centers, Is it correct to rely on? Especially in the form of violation with the results of the global astronomical centers (from Tokyo and Bacon and Mesku, Berlin, Paris, London, Kanada, America and Australia)?! Or that the mind tells us to note the results of global centers, that if the work on the account and the school of thought is supported on the suspension of fasting and breakfast on the account.

But if settled Juristic comment is fast and breakfast on demonstrated real vision of the moon, do not forget alerts earlier in the duties of just the moon in the industrial age, and adopted the vision of the real show to see the people of the country does not view individual sporadic, as it does not mean if the sky awake, air clean Many of the people kicking and examiners to see the Crescent, see Crescent person or few persons only!

Therefore the issue of vision necessary to note two reasons: first, the possibility of vision supported by astronomical centers in the world and that this history may be generated Crescent and vision. The second is where the vision real and not illusory, and that locating and municipal societies and not individually.

In conclusion, I say God Arnie things as they are, God knew the truth and the truth, and spared us the illusion of sin, and Oazna from the evil of the devil and the deep business Ovguena You Hearer of Prayer.
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